Saturday, 15 October 2011

Differences between Steady state model and Dynamic Universe Model

There was an anonymous question in the Blog...
'What are the differences between the steady state model and Dynamic Universe Model?'

What are the differences between the steady state model and Dynamic Universe Model? In order to understand this question, we have to go  into the basic formation of mathematics of these models. But in simple words, both Steady state and Dynamic Universe Model are based on the same philosophy that the universe appeared the same yesterday as it does today and will look same tomorrow.

The Hoyle’s Steady state Universe Model is based on Einstein’s General theory of relativity. It supports expansion of universe and red-shifted Galaxies. To maintain the constant matter density in space, Hoyle proposed the creation of matter from empty space. He did not like the idea of Big Bang.  It was he who  coined the term ‘Big Bang’ to make fun of the concept of ‘the start and creation of Universe from a singularity from nowhere’, in a scientific gathering.
The main problem faced by Hoyle, with his Steady state Model is the occurrence  of Big Bang in his own model. He disliked the concept of Big Bang all his life; yet there would be a Big Bang in his Steady state Model. This was proven mathematically by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose, in their singularity theorem. The singularity theorem says that any Universe model which is based on Einstein’s General theory of relativity, supports expansion of Universe will have a Big Bang Singularity in some distant Past.
Now let’s come to Dynamic Universe Model.    
The Dynamic Universe Model is conceptually different from Einstein’s General theory of relativity. This model is also based on Tensors. But there will be no differential and integral equations on the expansion of these Tensors. No differential and integral equations are used as in the case of Newtonian two body problem. No differential and integral equations at all !
This Dynamic Universe Model supports simultaneous expansion and contraction of the universe. There will be red-shifted as well as blue shifted Galaxies in this Universe. The universe is dynamically balanced. All bodies in this universe are moving. Nothing stays static.  Some will go far away and some will come near. There will always be change.
This Dynamic Universe Model is a closed universe model. No energy flows out of universe. There are no other universes, No baby universes. No infinities.

Dynamic Universe model is a singularity free tensor based math model. The tensors used are linear without using any differential or integral equations. Only one calculated output set of values exists.  Data means properties of each point mass like its three dimensional coordinates, velocities, accelerations and it’s mass. Newtonian two-body problem used differential equations. Einstein’s general relativity used tensors, which in turn unwrap into differential equations. Dynamic Universe Model uses tensors that give simple equations with inter-dependencies. Differential equations will not give unique solutions. Whereas Dynamic Universe Model gives a unique solution of positions, velocities and accelerations; for each point mass in the system for every instant of time. This new method of Mathematics in Dynamic Universe Model is different from all earlier methods of solving general N-body problem.

This universe exists now in the present state, it existed earlier, and it will continue to exist in future also in a similar way. All physical laws will work at any time and at any place. Evidences for the three dimensional rotations or the dynamism of the universe can be seen in the streaming motions of local group and local cluster. Here in this dynamic universe, both the red shifted and blue shifted Galaxies co-exist simultaneously.

In this Dynamic Universe Model, different sets of point masses were taken at different 3 dimensional positions at different distances. These masses were allowed to move according to the universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. In other words each point mass is under the continuous and Dynamical influence of all the other masses. For any N-body problem calculations, the more accurate our input data the better will be the calculated results; one should take extreme care, while collecting the input data. One may think that ‘these are simulations of the Universe, taking 133 bodies is too less.’ But all these masses are not same, some are star masses, some are Galaxy masses some clusters of Galaxies situated at their appropriate distances. All these positions are for their gravitational centres. The results of these simulation calculations are taken here. 

Here in these simulations the universe is assumed to be heterogeneous and anisotropic. From the output data graphs and pictures are formed from this Model.   These pictures show from the random starting points to final stabilized orbits of the point masses involved.   Because of this dynamism built in the model, the universe does not collapse into a lump (due to Newtonian gravitational static forces). This Model depicts the three dimensional orbit formations of involved masses or celestial bodies like in our present universe. From the resulting graphs one can see the orbit formations of the point masses, which were positioned randomly at the start. An orbit formation means that some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted) relative to an observer’s viewpoint.

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