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'What are the differences between the steady state model and Dynamic Universe Model?'

The Hoyle’s Steady state Universe Model is based on Einstein’s General theory of relativity. It supports expansion of universe and red-shifted Galaxies. To maintain the constant matter density in space, Hoyle proposed the creation of matter from empty space. He did not like the idea of Big Bang. It was he who coined the term ‘Big Bang’ to make fun of the concept of ‘the start and creation of Universe from a singularity from nowhere’, in a scientific gathering.

The main problem faced by Hoyle, with his Steady state Model is the occurrence of Big Bang in his own model. He disliked the concept of Big Bang all his life; yet there would be a Big Bang in his Steady state Model. This was proven mathematically by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose, in their singularity theorem. The singularity theorem says that any Universe model which is based on Einstein’s General theory of relativity, supports expansion of Universe will have a Big Bang Singularity in some distant Past.

Now let’s come to Dynamic Universe Model.

The Dynamic Universe Model is conceptually different from Einstein’s General theory of relativity. This model is also based on Tensors. But there will be no differential and integral equations on the expansion of these Tensors. No differential and integral equations are used as in the case of Newtonian two body problem. No differential and integral equations at all !

This Dynamic Universe Model supports simultaneous expansion and contraction of the universe. There will be red-shifted as well as blue shifted Galaxies in this Universe. The universe is dynamically balanced. All bodies in this universe are moving. Nothing stays static. Some will go far away and some will come near. There will always be change.

This Dynamic Universe Model is a closed universe model. No energy flows out of universe. There are no other universes, No baby universes. No infinities.

Dynamic Universe model is a singularity free
tensor based math model. The tensors used are linear without using any
differential or integral equations. Only one calculated output set of values
exists. Data means properties of each
point mass like its three dimensional coordinates, velocities, accelerations
and it’s mass. Newtonian two-body problem used differential equations.
Einstein’s general relativity used tensors, which in turn unwrap into
differential equations. Dynamic Universe Model uses tensors that give simple
equations with inter-dependencies. Differential equations will not give unique
solutions. Whereas Dynamic Universe Model gives a unique solution of positions,
velocities and accelerations; for each point mass in the system for every
instant of time. This new method of Mathematics in Dynamic Universe Model is
different from all earlier methods of solving general N-body problem.

This universe exists now in the present
state, it existed earlier, and it will continue to exist in future also in a
similar way. All physical laws will work at any time and at any place.
Evidences for the three dimensional rotations or the dynamism of the universe
can be seen in the streaming motions of local group and local cluster. Here in
this dynamic universe, both the red shifted and blue shifted Galaxies co-exist
simultaneously.

In this Dynamic Universe Model, different
sets of point masses were taken at different 3 dimensional positions at
different distances. These masses were allowed to move according to the universal
gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its
position. In other words each point mass is under the continuous and Dynamical
influence of all the other masses. For any N-body problem calculations, the
more accurate our input data the better will be the calculated results; one should
take extreme care, while collecting the input data. One may think that ‘these
are simulations of the Universe, taking 133 bodies is too less.’ But all these
masses are not same, some are star masses, some are Galaxy masses some clusters
of Galaxies situated at their appropriate distances. All these positions are
for their gravitational centres. The results of these simulation calculations
are taken here.

Here
in these simulations the universe is assumed to be heterogeneous and
anisotropic. From the output data graphs and pictures are formed from this
Model. These pictures show from the
random starting points to final stabilized orbits of the point masses
involved. Because of this dynamism
built in the model, the universe does not collapse into a lump (due to
Newtonian gravitational static forces). This Model depicts the three
dimensional orbit formations of involved masses or celestial bodies like in our
present universe. From the resulting graphs one can see the orbit formations of
the point masses, which were positioned randomly at the start. An orbit
formation means that some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are
going away (Red shifted) relative to an observer’s viewpoint.

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