It was sent back with Editorial comment by Editor Dr. Erick Weinberg in 2004:
‘It is a very well established observational fact that all distant galaxies are red-shifted. None are blue-shifted.’
My Lycos e-mail ID was closed back in 2004 itself as it became a paid mail account and I could not afford to pay. All the information was given here about this paper and its original comments including the paper itself were provided with the kind help of Editorial staff at Physical review D in USA.
This original paper sent to PRD is available at:
This paper was submitted again as it is with my comments on 6th Feb 2012, as…
“It is well known that, from the data taken from Hubble space Telescope, NASA found more than 6900 Blue shifted Galaxies, that was the data till Dec 2009. So the Dynamic Universe model predictions of that time (2004) came true. See the link below dated 10th Dec 2009..
And the BAUT Forum discussion:
There are many other links, and if you want I will provide them to you. Now you tell me how to explain the presence of all these Blue shifted galaxies in a totally expanding Universe?
Those editorial comments are probably correct for that period June 2004. In that period and earlier to that time, Blue shifted Galaxies were only handful and less than 10. That includes Andromeda and few other dwarf Galaxies in our Local system. Now it is not true.”
Again the paper was returned with editorial comments on 10th Feb 2012:
‘The blue-shifted galaxies are relatively nearby ones whose peculiar motion overcomes the Hubble flow. All of the most distant galaxies (and indeed the overwhelming majority of all galaxies) are red-shifted.’
There are many secrets embedded in the Universe that are still unexplored. A simple uniform law may not explain all the peculiarities in the ever changing Dynamic universe. In fact, the uniform density is not observable at any scale because of large Voids and Great walls present in the Universe. Earth is not the centre of universe. Our universe is finite. The view from earth is not being uniform in all the directions. Keeping these facts in mind, I am trying to reply the entire technical quarries as asked by you in verbatim ….
‘Peculiar motions’ of Galaxies is the thing predicted by Dynamic Universe Model theoretically, where as Bigbang based cosmologies predict only radially outward motion or red-shifted Galaxies and no blue-shifted Galaxies at all. Let’s start with an analogy. Imagine one person standing near a giant wheel in a children’s park. When the wheel is rotating and the person is standing on the axis of wheel, he will see all the buckets moving and none come near or go away. When the person is standing in the plane of giant wheel rotation, he will see some buckets come near at the top and some go away at the bottom. All the other buckets will have some upward motion or downward motion, combined with either coming near or going away. Depending on the person’s position relative to the plane of rotation, the overall effect of buckets going away or coming near will vary. It is peculiar motion of buckets in the plane. Peculiar motion can be in any direction in the three dimensional sphere from the centre.
Now, let us imagine 10 such giant wheels rotating about each other and such 6 sets of (10 giant wheels in each set, of course both 6 & 10 are arbitrary numbers) rotating giant wheels rotating about each other all in different planes. These giant wheels, can be rotating about each other, when there no huge central mass. No problem. All depends on their positions and instantaneous velocities. Imagine yourself in one bucket and observing a distant bucket in different giant wheel with a telescope. You can see only observed bucket going away or coming near. That observed giant wheel will have a bigger velocity component of going away super imposed on its coming near component of velocity in the observed motion of bucket. In a 3 dimensional space there are many directions. Very few can come near purely towards you (Blue-shift). All the others will have some component of going away (red-shift). This red-shift component is readily measured in the case of a Galaxy, which is having its own peculiar motion. Here one can visualize why Blue-shifted galaxies (or the buckets in our analogy without any outgoing velocity component) are less.
Local group of Galaxies are present up to a distance of 3.6 MPC. From that point onwards, we will find red-shifted Galaxies. I don’t know where actually Hubble flow starts. But I think that is the distance of 3.6 MPC where so called Hubble-flow starts. If the Hubble flow does not start here, why red-shifted galaxies appear from this distance onwards? If the Hubble–flow is such strong, why would it leave some 7000 blue-shifted Galaxies? We are discussing ‘Hubble flow’ as some unknown force pulling away all the galaxies to cause the expansion of universe. But in reality it is the going away component of ‘peculiar motion’ of that particular Galaxy. That Galaxy may be moving in any direction in reality. Each Galaxy move independently, with the gravitational force of its Local group, cluster etc. There no separate Hubble force to cause a separate Hubble flow…
The blue-shifted galaxies are relatively nearby ones, All of the most distant galaxies (and indeed the overwhelming majority of all galaxies) are red-shifted…..
Different estimates of distances of Blue-shifted Galaxies especially in Virgo Cluster are varying. There are about 3000 blue-shifted Galaxies in Virgo cluster. Some estimate for the most distant Blue-shifted Galaxy in Virgo cluster may go as high as 40 MPC, and other estimate go as low as 17 MPC. I don’t know whom to believe. Here distance estimate is not dependent on Red / Blue shift, but dependent on various other methods. Here probably the distance and redshift proportionality is not working. So we can see that blue shifted Galaxies are not confining to EARLIER THINKING OF 3.6 MPC distances. Here, the estimated distance is not depending on Red / Blue shift, but on various other methods. Accurate measurement of distances after 40 MPC depends mostly on red-shift only. There is a hope to find an accurate estimate of distance, if type Ia Supernova standard candle is observed in a Galaxy. When we are estimating the distance with red-shift, finding far off blue-shifted Galaxies is not possible.
All these findings are from some recent times only. Hence nothing can be said about the peculiar motions of blue shifted Galaxies. All these velocities are at present radial velocities only. A lot of work is to be done in these lines.
In general, whether the Source is emitting radiation in Infrared (Microwave or some lover frequencies) region or lower, or the Source is in Ultra violet (X-rays or higher) frequency region, we take the source as red-shifted only. The SOURCES which emit only X-rays were taken as red-shifted, though by definition, X-rays are BLUE-shifted, due to their higher frequency. Even if the source is emitting a single frequency radiation, we find it is only red-shifted. (I am talking of the situation about 8 years back, now things are changing. In 2004 the situation is much tougher for me, than today.)
CURRENT STATUS (as on Mar 1, 2012.)
JOURNAL: Physical Review D (D15)
SECTION: Rapid Communication.
TITLE: No big bang and general relativity: Proves DUMAS
(dynamic universe model of cosmology a computer
PACS: 98.80.Jk 98.80.-k
ADDRESS: Dr. Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
16/2 Anand Bihar
Durgapur - 713204
West Bengal, INDIA
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