Saturday, 3 March 2012

Mathematical Prediction of Existence of Blue shifted Galaxies announced in 2004 in Dynamic Universe Model came true…..

A new type of mathematics called Dynamic Universe Model can solve tensors with out giving any differential equations and can be used for solving general N-body problem. A paper titled ‘No big bang and general relativity:  Proves DUMAS (dynamic universe model of cosmology a computer simulation)’ with CODE: DSR894 was submitted to JOURNAL:  “Physical Review D (D15)’ on 24May04.

1st comment

It was sent back with Editorial comment by Editor Dr. Erick Weinberg in 2004:

‘It is a very well established observational fact that all distant galaxies are red-shifted.  None are blue-shifted.’

My Lycos e-mail ID was closed back in 2004 itself as it became a paid mail account and I could not afford to pay. All the information was given here about this paper and its original comments including the paper itself were provided with the kind help of Editorial staff at Physical review D in USA.

This original paper sent to PRD is available at:!136&parid=485CC4B593A12043!135

This paper was submitted again as it is with my comments on 6th Feb 2012, as…

“It is well known that, from the data taken from Hubble space Telescope, NASA found more than 6900 Blue shifted Galaxies, that was the data till Dec 2009. So the Dynamic Universe model predictions of that time (2004) came true. See the link below dated 10th Dec 2009..

And the BAUT Forum discussion:

There are many other links, and if you want I will provide them to you. Now you tell me how to explain the presence of all these Blue shifted galaxies in a totally expanding Universe?

Those editorial comments are probably correct for that period June 2004. In that period and earlier to that time, Blue shifted Galaxies were only handful and less than 10. That includes Andromeda and few other dwarf Galaxies in our Local system. Now it is not true.”

Again the paper was returned with editorial comments on 10th Feb 2012:

‘The blue-shifted galaxies are relatively nearby ones whose peculiar motion overcomes the Hubble flow. All of the most distant galaxies (and indeed the overwhelming majority of all galaxies) are red-shifted.’


There are many secrets embedded in the Universe that are still unexplored. A simple uniform law may not explain all the peculiarities in the ever changing Dynamic universe. In fact, the uniform density is not observable at any scale because of large Voids and Great walls present in the Universe. Earth is not the centre of universe. Our universe is finite. The view from earth is not being uniform in all the directions. Keeping these facts in mind, I am trying to reply the entire technical quarries as asked by you in verbatim ….

Peculiar motions:
‘Peculiar motions’ of Galaxies is the thing predicted by Dynamic Universe Model theoretically, where as Bigbang based cosmologies predict only radially outward motion or red-shifted Galaxies and no blue-shifted Galaxies at all. Let’s start with an analogy. Imagine one person standing near a giant wheel in a children’s park. When the wheel is rotating and the person is standing on the axis of wheel, he will see all the buckets moving and none come near or go away. When the person is standing in the plane of giant wheel rotation, he will see some buckets come near at the top and some go away at the bottom. All the other buckets will have some upward motion or downward motion, combined with either coming near or going away. Depending on the person’s position relative to the plane of rotation, the overall effect of buckets going away or coming near will vary.  It is peculiar motion of buckets in the plane. Peculiar motion can be in any direction in the three dimensional sphere from the centre.
Now, let us imagine 10 such giant wheels rotating about each other and such 6 sets of (10 giant wheels in each set, of course both 6 & 10 are arbitrary numbers) rotating giant wheels rotating about each other all in different planes. These giant wheels, can be rotating about each other, when there no huge central mass. No problem.  All depends on their positions and instantaneous velocities. Imagine yourself in one bucket and observing a distant bucket in different giant wheel with a telescope. You can see only observed bucket going away or coming near. That observed giant wheel will have a bigger velocity component of going away super imposed on its coming near component of velocity in the observed motion of bucket. In a 3 dimensional space there are many directions. Very few can come near purely towards you (Blue-shift). All the others will have some component of going away (red-shift). This red-shift component is readily measured in the case of a Galaxy, which is having its own peculiar motion. Here one can visualize why Blue-shifted galaxies (or the buckets in our analogy without any outgoing velocity component) are less.

Hubble flow
Local group of Galaxies are present up to a distance of 3.6 MPC. From that point onwards, we will find red-shifted Galaxies. I don’t know where actually Hubble flow starts. But I think that is the distance of 3.6 MPC where so called Hubble-flow starts. If the Hubble flow does not start here, why red-shifted galaxies appear from this distance onwards?  If the Hubble–flow is such strong, why would it leave some 7000 blue-shifted Galaxies? We are discussing ‘Hubble flow’ as some unknown force pulling away all the galaxies to cause the expansion of universe. But in reality it is the going away component of ‘peculiar motion’ of that particular Galaxy. That Galaxy may be moving in any direction in reality. Each Galaxy move independently, with the gravitational force of its Local group, cluster etc. There no separate Hubble force to cause a separate Hubble flow…

The blue-shifted galaxies are relatively nearby ones, All of the most distant galaxies (and indeed the overwhelming majority of all galaxies) are red-shifted…..

Different estimates of distances of Blue-shifted Galaxies especially in Virgo Cluster are varying. There are about 3000 blue-shifted Galaxies in Virgo cluster. Some estimate for the most distant Blue-shifted Galaxy in Virgo cluster may go as high as 40 MPC, and other estimate go as low as 17 MPC. I don’t know whom to believe. Here distance estimate is not dependent on Red / Blue shift, but dependent on various other methods. Here probably the distance and redshift proportionality is not working. So we can see that blue shifted Galaxies are not confining to EARLIER THINKING OF 3.6 MPC distances. Here, the estimated distance is not depending on Red / Blue shift, but on various other methods.  Accurate measurement of distances after 40 MPC depends mostly on red-shift only. There is a hope to find an accurate estimate of distance, if type Ia Supernova standard candle is observed in a Galaxy. When we are estimating the distance with red-shift, finding far off blue-shifted Galaxies is not possible.

All these findings are from some recent times only. Hence nothing can be said about the peculiar motions of blue shifted Galaxies. All these velocities are at present radial velocities only.  A lot of work is to be done in these lines.

In general, whether the Source is emitting radiation in Infrared (Microwave or some lover frequencies) region or lower, or the Source is in Ultra violet (X-rays or higher) frequency region, we take the source as red-shifted only. The SOURCES which emit only X-rays were taken as red-shifted, though by definition, X-rays are BLUE-shifted, due to their higher frequency. Even if the source is emitting a single frequency radiation, we find it is only red-shifted. (I am talking of the situation about 8 years back, now things are changing. In 2004 the situation is much tougher for me, than today.)

CURRENT STATUS (as on Mar 1, 2012.)

CODE:      DSR894
JOURNAL:   Physical Review D (D15)
RECEIVED:  24May04
SECTION:   Rapid Communication.
TITLE:     No big bang and general relativity:  Proves DUMAS
           (dynamic universe model of cosmology a computer
AUTHOR(s): Gupta,S.N.P.
PACS:      98.80.Jk 98.80.-k
ADDRESS:   Dr. Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
           16/2 Anand Bihar
           Durgapur - 713204
           West Bengal, INDIA
PHONE:     011+91343-310-9661

Please check all of the above information carefully. (To send us corrections or updates you may send an email message to
CURRENT STATUS OF MANUSCRIPT: Not under active consideration

10Feb12                  Editorial decision and/or referee comments sent to author
06Feb12                  Correspondence (miscellaneous) sent to author
08Jun04 04Feb12    Ed. decision and/or ref. comments to author; response rcvd
31Jan12 01Feb12    Correspondence (miscellaneous) sent to author; response rcvd
31Jan12                   Correspondence (miscellaneous) sent to author
30Jan12                   Correspondence (miscellaneous) sent to author
30Jan12                   Communication (miscellaneous) received from author
27Jan12                   Correspondence (miscellaneous) sent to author
26Jan12                   Communication (miscellaneous) received from author
21Jun04                   Communication (miscellaneous) received from author
18Jun04                   Correspondence (miscellaneous) sent to author
10Jun04                   Communication (miscellaneous) received from author
10Jun04                   Communication (miscellaneous) received from author
08Jun04                   Correspondence (miscellaneous) sent to author
28May04                 Communication (miscellaneous) received from author
26May04                 Acknowledgment sent to author
24May04                 Right to publish signature received

Dynamic Universe model is a singularity free tensor based math model. The tensors used are linear without using any differential or integral equations. Only one calculated output set of values exists.  Data means properties of each point mass like its three dimensional coordinates, velocities, accelerations and it’s mass. Newtonian two-body problem used differential equations. Einstein’s general relativity used tensors, which in turn unwrap into differential equations. Dynamic Universe Model uses tensors that give simple equations with inter-dependencies. Differential equations will not give unique solutions. Whereas Dynamic Universe Model gives a unique solution of positions, velocities and accelerations; for each point mass in the system for every instant of time. This new method of Mathematics in Dynamic Universe Model is different from all earlier methods of solving general N-body problem.

This universe exists now in the present state, it existed earlier, and it will continue to exist in future also in a similar way. All physical laws will work at any time and at any place. Evidences for the three dimensional rotations or the dynamism of the universe can be seen in the streaming motions of local group and local cluster. Here in this dynamic universe, both the red shifted and blue shifted Galaxies co-exist simultaneously.

In this Dynamic Universe Model, different sets of point masses were taken at different 3 dimensional positions at different distances. These masses were allowed to move according to the universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. In other words each point mass is under the continuous and Dynamical influence of all the other masses. For any N-body problem calculations, the more accurate our input data the better will be the calculated results; one should take extreme care, while collecting the input data. One may think that ‘these are simulations of the Universe, taking 133 bodies is too less.’ But all these masses are not same, some are star masses, some are Galaxy masses some clusters of Galaxies situated at their appropriate distances. All these positions are for their gravitational centres. The results of these simulation calculations are taken here. 

Here in these simulations the universe is assumed to be heterogeneous and anisotropic. From the output data graphs and pictures are formed from this Model.   These pictures show from the random starting points to final stabilized orbits of the point masses involved.   Because of this dynamism built in the model, the universe does not collapse into a lump (due to Newtonian gravitational static forces). This Model depicts the three dimensional orbit formations of involved masses or celestial bodies like in our present universe. From the resulting graphs one can see the orbit formations of the point masses, which were positioned randomly at the start. An orbit formation means that some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted) relative to an observer’s viewpoint.

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